Gulf oil spill
On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon/BP MC252 drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers and caused the rig to sink. As a result, oil began leaking into the Gulf creating one of the largest spills in American history. During the next 87 days an estimated 4 million barrels (168 million gallons) were released from the reservoir, of which 3.19 million (134 million gallons) were released into the Gulf of Mexico.
NOAA and many partner organizations have conducted research to determine the full extent of the damage from the spilled oil on the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and economy. This spill impacted wildlife, habitats, fishing communities, and commerce along the large coastal areas of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Alabama, and Florida.
The Gulf of Mexico’s diverse ecosystem includes deep-sea ocean ridges and trenches, mid-depth banks, barrier islands, beaches, coral reefs, and estuaries. As currents and winds spread the oil from the mile-deep spill site, all habitats were at risk of contamination. Estuaries and coral reefs are some of the most sensitive areas in the impact zone as they provide protection, feeding areas, and nurseries for a large diversity of species.
Impacts to Wildlife
Sea turtles and marine birds were some of the first wildlife affected by the spill, as they live and feed on the surface where floating oil collects. Dolphins, whales and other marine mammals were also affected as they must come to the surface to breath. Oil accumulated on the skin of animals can make it difficult to breath and move in the water. Oiled birds can lose the ability to fly, dive for food, or float on the water which could lead to drowning. Oil also interferes with the water repellency of feathers and can cause hypothermia under the right conditions. Ingested oil can kill animals immediately; more often it results in lung, liver, and kidney damage which can lead to death. (Source: USFWS)
Fish, shrimp, and shellfish are basic parts of the Gulf’s food web and are also important to the economic health of the region. To minimize human exposure to potentially unsafe seafood from the spill region, more than 80,000 square miles of commercial and recreational fishing grounds were closed while scientists investigated the impact of the spill and clean-up efforts on these organisms. After careful consideration for public health these waters are open once again and ongoing monitoring continues to insure the safety of seafood and check the health of the ecosystem. (Source: NOAA Keeping Seafood Safe)
Cleanup and restoration efforts have been ongoing since the summer of 2010. Primary restoration activities work to restore or replace habitats, species and services back to their original condition where possible. Through compensatory restoration efforts businesses and the public are provided compensation for losses as a result of the time natural resources are injured and unusable. Liability for these damages and restoration costs are still being determined.
Although several years have passed since the actual spill, the Deepwater Horizon/BP is still a current event and is seen frequently in the news providing teachable moments for educators. The materials provided with this collection present the facts surrounding the spill and ongoing research, monitoring, and restoration efforts. In addition to large oil spills such as this, non-point sources of pollution continue to threaten our ocean ecosystem. These sources can be as significant as the Deepwater Horizon/BP spill and are more directly linked to individual behaviors. Learning about both types of pollution can help protect ocean habitats by improving stewardship behaviors.Produced in cooperation with the NOAA Office of Response and Restoration
Page updated March 2013