Space weather

Space weather forecasting

NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the official source for space weather forecasts for our nation. They forecast solar storms, much like our National Weather Service offices forecast weather here on Earth. SWPC forecasters use ground-based instruments and satellites to monitor the active regions of the Sun for any changes and issue watches, warnings, and alerts for hazardous space weather events. Just like there are categories used to classify hurricanes, there are also Space Weather Scales for communicating the severity of solar storms. To predict these storms, forecasters watch the Sun for solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Solar flares are massive explosions on the Sun's surface. They often arise near sunspots and release a wide spectrum of photons such as X-Rays, visible light, and ultra-violet light, as well as highly energized protons outward into space. The biggest solar storms arise from coronal mass ejections (CME). A CME is an enormous bubble of plasma expelled by the Sun; it contains billions of tons of fast-moving solar particles as well as the magnetic field that binds them. The velocity of a CME can even exceed 5 million miles per hour!

Powerful eruption from the surface of the sun captured on June 20, 2013.
Space weather: Storms from the sun
Eruptions from the Sun’s surface can cause space weather storms that affect technology here on Earth.

Space weather impacts Earth

Earth's magnetic field helps to protect us from the effects of some solar storms, but how can space weather impact the Earth? Strong solar storms can cause fluctuations of electrical currents in space and energize electrons and protons trapped in Earth's varying magnetic field. These disturbances can cause problems with radio communications, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), power grids, and satellites. Imagine all the ways in which we are dependent upon satellites: cell phones, weather prediction, TV, search and rescue, navigation, space travel, military surveillance, credit card and ATM transactions, and more. What if those satellites were damaged? As we become more dependent on technology, the need for space weather monitoring and forecasting becomes more important.

IMAGE - NOAA USGS geoelectric power grid model - 092019 - NWS - Landscape - LOW RES! for listing only
New NOAA-USGS model for electrical power grid operators
A new model from the Space Weather Prediction Center and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) calculates disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field from geomagnetic storms. The near real-time data indicates the level of space weather impact affecting the electrical power grid to help operators manage effects on critical infrastructure.


They say every storm cloud has a silver lining. In the case of space weather, that lining is the aurora, commonly known as the Northern or Southern Lights. When electrons and protons around Earth are energized by solar disturbances, they can follow Earth’s magnetic field toward the North and South magnetic poles where they collide with atmospheric molecules, energizing them and causing them to glow. The colors that result depend on the types of nearby atmospheric gases and are most commonly a brilliant yellow-green color.

The Aurorasaurusoffsite link citizen science project helps track where people see auroras. If you happen to see an aurora, consider contributing to the project!

Sunspots observed on the Sun August 24, 2015.
Sunspots and solar cycles
Sunspots are dark areas that become apparent at the Sun’s photosphere.


To address student's questions, educators can use the background information, multimedia, and career profiles. The lessons and activities link the physical science concepts of the electromagnetic spectrum, Earth-Sun relationships, and energy to the engaging topic of space weather. During space weather events students can also track auroras, space weather alerts, solar wind, and satellite imagery of the Sun using the data resources. Visit the Space Weather Prediction Center's education and outreach portal for even more resources!

Updated April 2021