Sea turtles

Although sea turtles live most of their lives in the ocean, adult females have to return to beaches to lay their eggs. They often migrate long distances between feeding areas and nesting beaches. The six species of sea turtles in the U.S. are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) administer the Endangered Species Act with respect to marine turtles.  NOAA Fisheries has the lead for the conservation and recovery of sea turtles when turtles are at sea.  The USFWS has the lead when sea turtles are on nesting beaches.

Not all sea turtles look this scary. This is a skeletal replica of Archelon ischyros, a species of turtle that lived 75 million years ago and
reached 4 meters in length.
Sea turtle skeletons hold clues for conservation
The bones of sea turtles have annual rings like those found in trees, and chemical markers within them give scientists a detailed view of the animal's life history...

Major threats to sea turtles in the U.S. include, but are not limited to: damage and changes to turtle’s nesting and foraging habitats; accidental capture by fishermen: getting tangled in marine debris; and being hit by boats and ships.  To decrease the capture of sea turtles in commercial fishing, use of certain kinds of fishing gear (gill nets, long-lines, pound nets, and trawls) that are known to catch large numbers of sea turtles are restricted. NOAA Fisheries and the USFWS have developed plans to guide research and management efforts for each sea turtle species to improve their health and long-term survival outlook.

Along with Dr. Kate Mansfield, this sea turtle is about to make history. It is one of the first baby sea turtles to be outfitted with a satellite tag. Dr. Mansfield and her colleagues recently developed the first successful method for attaching satellite tags to baby sea turtles. This will allow scientists to map the turtles’ migration routes and to develop more effective conservation strategies.
The keratin collection: A breakthrough in sea turtle research
Dr. Kate Mansfield had two important collaborators in this project. One, Dr. Jeanette Wyneken, is a research biologist at Florida Atlantic University. And the other, Marisol Marrero, is a nail salon technician at Not Just Nails in Boynton Beach, Florida.

The conservation and recovery of sea turtles requires cooperation and agreements to make sure these migratory animals survive. NOAA Fisheries partners with other agencies and groups, and has a national and international programs to help conservation and recovery efforts of sea turtles. 

Kathy Moore inspects sea turtle eggs at NOAA's Marine Forensic Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina.
Sea turtle poacher sentenced in felony case using NOAA forensic analysis
Kathy’s morphological analysis confirmed that the carapaces were hawksbill turtle, and her DNA analysis revealed that the meat was from at least two hawksbills and one green turtle...


The education resources in this collection provide educators and students opportunities to explore the biology and adaptations of sea turtles, their position in marine food webs, the human and natural threats to their survival, and the conservation efforts being used to protect them.  In addition, resources are provided that allow students ways to become involved in improving the sea turtles’ outlook. Activities include habitat restoration, turtle interaction etiquette, and tracking sea turtles through real-time radio telemetry data from the ocean.